Thursday, April 7, 2011


Get the phase one of soap production!

Phase 1 of soap production!

Phase one of manufacturing of soaps and detergents involves definition of terms
associated to the production and selection of raw materials. We know, you wouldn't want to hear
things that are abstract, neither do we pray so. The reasons for making you know, at least, the
basic parts are uncountable. In Chemical engineering, we call it material selection.
Raw materials are selected on the basis of various factors,
including - cost, human and environmental safety, compatibility with other
ingredients, and the performance characteristics and appearance of the final
product. The actual production process may vary from company to company
and manufacturer to manufacturer,there are some steps, which are common to all
types of cleaning products.

Basic definitions;

1. Soap:
Soap is a metallic ester that contains 13 to 18- molecules of Carbon and about 35-molecules of Hydrogen. I can also add that soap is a compound that has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic abilities where the hydrophobic makes it possible for your soap to dissolve in water being the acidic part of the soap while hydrophilic makes it possible for your soap to dissolve in oily substances as well, being the hydrocarbon part.

In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Soap is mainly used for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but soaps
are also important components of lubricants. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides: three molecules of fatty acids attached to a single molecule of glycerol. The alkaline solution, often lye, promotes a chemical reaction known as saponification which is closely related to that of detergent production. In saponification, fats are broken down (hydrolyzed) yielding crude soap. Fats are transformed into salts of fatty acids and glycerol is liberated, leaving glycerin as a by-product.
          Soaps are derivatives of fatty acids. Traditionally, soaps are derived from triglycerides (vegetable and animal fats). Triglyceride is the technical name for these triesters of fatty acids. Sodium tallowate, a common ingredient in many soaps, is derived from rendered beef fat. Typical vegetable oils used in soap making are palm oil, where the product is typically softer. If soap is made from pure olive oil it may be called Castile soap or Marseille soap. The term 8 "castile" is also sometimes applied to soaps with a mix of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. Aside from olive oil, other saponifiable oils and fats include coconut, palm, cocoa butter, hemp oil, and shea butter to provide different qualities. For example, olive oil provides mildness in soap. Coconut oil provides lots of lather. Coconut and palm oils
provide hardness. Sometimes castor oil can also be used as an humectant. Most common, though, is a combination of coconut, palm, and olive oils. Smaller amounts of unsaponifiable oils and fats that do not yield soap are sometimes added for further benefits.

2. Biodegradable:
This is a chemical way of saying that a something is made from natural products.

3. Metallic ester:
From our physical sciences, we know that a metal is something that has the ability to react. Soaps are metallic esters due to their possession of hydrophobic ( Oily or insoluble in water, ie.9
hydrocarbon chain) and the hydrophilic (water loving or soluble in water, i.e. COO- Na+)

4. Hydrophobic:
In a local man language, this means water-loving. As a Chemist, it is the acidic part of the soap that helps in attracting water to the soap molecules.

5. Hydrophilic:
Also, in a local man's language, this is the water-hating part of the soap. This are the molecules attached to compound by hydrocarbons used in the soap production.

NOTE: The combination of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics of the saop makes it posiible for our soap products not to re-deposit the dirts that you thought to have already been cleaned from the material that are being cleaned by the use of the soap product.

             Perhaps, this is one the things that we use to know that a soap product is good as we have already stated in soap production and economics earlier discussed!


We would not like to waste your time, follow us to materials needed for the production:
1. NaOH (aq), Caustic soda

2. Sulphurnic acid

3.H2O2 (aq) i.e. Hydrogen peroxide

Watch out for other constituents as we continue on phase 2!



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Watch out for phase 2!

1 comment:

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